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Alexandrian Senna (Cassia acutifolia) Ma Khaam Khak

Action: Alterative, Anthelmintic, Antipyretic, Antiseptic, Cholagogue, Laxative, Purgative
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Leaf, Pod
Internal application: Tea made from Alexandrian senna pods is a strong and effective laxative for treatment of constipation. The leaves are somewhat more gentle, and tea from the leaves is traditionally used as a mild laxative for the elderly. In smaller doses, senna stimulates the liver and encourages the production of bile, thereby aiding digestion.
Topical application: Decoction of Alexandrian senna pods is an antiseptic. Applied topically, it is used traditionally as a treatment for bacterial and fungal skin infections. As a gargle, it is used to treat infections of the mouth, including tooth and gum disease, and mouth sores.
Caution: Senna is not recommended for patients with hemorrhoids or for those with high levels of stress, tension, or chronic anxiety.
Note: Where C. acutifolia can not be found, the more common Western varieties, C. Marilandica or C. angustifolia, can be used.

Aloe Vera (Aloe indica) Waan Haang Jarakhe

Action: Adjuvant, Alterative, Anthelmintic, Antipyretic, Bitter Tonic, Blood Tonic, Emollient, Emmenagogue, Laxative, Purgative, Vulnerary
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Leaf
Internal application: The Thai name for aloe translates as “alligator tail plant.” Well known to the Western tradition as a bitter tonic, aloe has beneficial effects on the liver, spleen, uterus, and blood. The gel of the aloe leaves is taken internally to regulate menstruation, for detoxification, for clearing up persistent lingering illness, for liver disease and for chronic constipation. As it is a gently detoxifying laxative, aloe is a common adjuvant in the treatment of any infectious disease. Large doses of aloe act as a purgative and can expel intestinal worms and other parasites. The Wat Po texts list aloe in recipes for parasites, vomiting, diarrhea, dysentery, constipation, mucous in the digestive tract, flatulence, fever, blood in breast milk, and infected or stagnant blood. It is used by Hill-Tribes to combat epilepsy, seizures, and rabies.
Topical application: Thai tradition holds that a dab of aloe gel on each temple is a great cure for tension headaches. Aloe gel is also mentioned in the Wat Po texts as a topical remedy for convulsions, tetanus, backache, boils, swelling, and tendinitis. lt is commonly used topically in Eastern and Western herbalism to soothe burns, cuts, herpes, eczema, and other skin irritations.

 Alum Powder Saansom

Action: Astringent, Antiparasitic, Antiseptic
Taste: Sour
Part used: Alum powder is a white crystalline salt derived from aluminum sulfate.
Internal Application: Alum powder is an antibacterial for infections of the ear, bladder or eye. An effective astringent, it also is used to treat hemorrhoids, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
Topical Application: Alum powder is added to toothpaste or tooth powder to fight tooth decay and to strengthen unhealthy or loose teeth. It may be used on the skin for rashes, eczema, itching, scabies, ringworm, and other skin parasites.

Alumina Clay

Action: Antipruritic, Astringent
Taste: Bland
Part used: A white powdered clay derived from bauxite or aluminum oxide.
Topical Application: Alumina clay is applied topically to soothe skin rashes, hives, insect bites, and irritations.

Angelica (Angelica archangelica) Kot Hua Bua

Action: Analgesic, Antirheumatic, Antispasmodic, Appetizer, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Emmenagogue, Expectorant, Stimulant, Stomachic, Tonic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Root, Seed, Rhizome
Internal Application: Angelica is beneficial for any type of pre-menstrual symptoms, including cramps, headaches, bloat, and muscle spasms, It is also effective in promoting regular menstruation when blocked. Angelica is used as a cold remedy and against flu, fever, and generally low energy and low immunity. ln small doses, it also stimulates the appetite.
Topical Application: Angelica is applied topically to control itching and to help heal wounds and cuts. It also may be applied with hot compress over arthritic joints to control pain.

Arabian Jasmine (Jasminum sambac) Mali

Action: Alterative, Cardiac, Emmenagogue, Female Tonic, Nervine, Refrigerant, Sedative, Tonic
Taste: Aromatic
Part used: Flower
Internal Application: Arabian jasmine is used in the Thai sauna and steam bath for calming the mind, easing headaches, and as a tonic for the heart and blood. It is said to be especially beneficial to pregnant women.
Topical Application: The leaf of the Arabian jasmine is antiseptic and is used for wounds and acne.
Note: There are many species of jasmine that may be used medicinally.

Asafoetida Ferula foetida (Ferula asafoetida)

Action: Analgesic, Anthelmintic, Antirheumatic, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Aphrodisiac, Carminative, Digestive, Expectorant, Laxative, Nen/ine, Purgative, Sedative, Stimulant, Stomachic
Taste: Hot
Part used: A resin is extracted by incising the roots of the fresh plants
Internal Application: As a hot herb, asafoetida is used in Thai medicine to stimulate digestion and to help cases of flatulence, indigestion, and constipation. lt’ s expectorant action makes it ideal to fight colds, congestion, and asthma. A daily dose of asafoetida is reputed to be a tonic for the brain and senses, and is also recommended to counter arthritis. ln large doses, it is a purgative used to expel intestinal worms.
Topical Application: Topically, a poultice of asafoetida may be used to soothe arthritis and other joint pain.

Bael (Aegle marmelos) Matum

Action: Antiseptic, Astringent, Carminative, Expectorant, Stimulant, Stornachic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Fruit, Leaf
Internal Application: The ripe bael fruit is traditionally used as a decongestant for the common cold, especially when there is excessive congestion of the lungs, as well as for tuberculosis and typhoid fever. lt is also prescribed for any type of disorder of the intestines, including diarrhea, constipation, flatulence, and dysentery. Bael fruit is used for its stimulating properties in cases of exhaustion and convalescence from chronic disease or injury, but it is said to inhibit sexual energy, and is for that reason drunk by monks at many monasteries. Unripe bael fruit is an astringent, used as an antidiarrheal and as a daily tonic. Juice from the crushed leaves of the bael is given for respiratory infections, and decoction of the stem is said to be a useful antimalarial.
Topical Application: Bael leaves may be used topically as an antibacterial and antifungal for skin infections or wounds.

Baking Soda

Action: Antacid, Antipruritic
Taste: Salty
Part used: Baking Soda is powdered sodium bicarbonate.
Internal Application: In the West, we typically use baking soda as a treatment for hyperacidity and indigestion. ln addition to this usage, Thai herbalists recommend a teaspoon of baking soda in a glass of warm water as a detoxifying cleanser for stomach, intestines, kidneys, and bladder.
Topical Application: Baking soda is useful topically on insect bites and stings lespecially bee and wasp), rashes, itchiness, and skin irritations, Due to its cleansing and whitening action, it is also a common ingredient in toothpaste and tooth powder.

Banana (Musa sapientum) Kluai

Action: Astringent, Demulcent, Diuretic, Nutritive Tonic, Stomachic
Taste: Bland
Part used: Fruit, Root, Sap
Internal Application: There are a 28 official species of bananas in Thailand, with marked differences in size, shape, and flavor. Each has a different name in Thai, although “kluai” is useful as a general term. Some bananas are green when ripe, some are pink, others are mottled brown, and according to traditional Thai cuisine, some are best in coconut milk, some are best raw, and some are only eaten soaked in honey and dried, The flowers of the banana plant are similar in texture to cabbage and are eaten in salads or in curries. The rest of the plant is utilized as well: the roots of the banana plant are converted into mulch, the fibers are woven into twine, and the leaves are used as plates and containers, A common method of cooking is to wrap ingredients such as rice, beans, fish, or vegetables in a banana leaf before grilling or steaming. The banana is also a source of wine, vinegar, cloth dye, and flour, Pureed banana is a popular baby food, and batter-fried bananas are a favorite street-stall snack. The banana plant, in botanical terms, is actually an herb, and the fruit is actually a berry. The fruit of the banana is high in vitamins A and C, potassium, and carbohydrates, and therefore the ripe fruits are useful for emaciation and wasting diseases, The unripe banana is used traditionally as a stomachic to treat diarrhea and peptic ulcers. The ripe fruit is demulcent, the roots are diuretic, and the sap of the stem is astringent.

Beleric Myrobalan (Terrninalia belerica) Samoh Phipheg

Action: Anthelmintic, Antiseptic, Antitussive, Astringent, Digestive, Expectorant, Laxative, Tonic
Taste: Astringent
Part used: Fruit
Internal Application: The beleric myrobalan fruit is a very important herb in the Ayurvedic tradition, and consequently, in the Royal Thai tradition as well. lt is considered to be a rejuvenative tonic, a tonic for the lungs, larynx, throat, bronchi, digestive system, and eyes and to encourage hair growth. The ripe fruit is an astringent to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and other intestinal parasites, but the unripe fruit is a strong laxative, which will correct constipation. Unripe beleric myrobalan fruit corrects all types of stones, parasites, and blockage in the digestive, urinary, and respiratory tracts. It is also an expectorant used to treat cough, sore throat and bronchitis.
Topical Application: Decoction of beleric myrobalan is a topical antiseptic.

Betel Leaf (Piper betel) Phlu

Action: Antiparasitic, Antipruritic, Antiseptic, Bronchodilator, Expectorant, Stimulant
Taste: Hot
Part Used: Leaf
Topical Application: The leaf of the Piper betel is commonly used to wrap a small amount of betel nut (Areca catechu), an addictive stimulant nut chewed by many throughout South Asia. The betel leaf is used topically as an antibacterial and as a treatment for allergic hives, itching, ringworm, and skin parasites. Betel leaf applied topically to the chest acts as a decongestant and bronchodilator and is successfully used in cases of congestion, difficult respiration, asthma, and diphtheria.

Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia) Mala

Action: Alterative, Anthelmintic, Antioxidant, Antipyretic, Bitter Tonic, Blood Tonic, Carminative, Cholagogue, Digestive, Laxative, Stomachic
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Fruit, Leaf
Internal Application: Bitter gourd works powerfully to detoxify the blood and colon. This fruit is commonly used in rural Thailand to fight AIDS, hepatitis, and cancer, as well as other systemic diseases, it has particularly beneficial effects on diseases of the liver, spleen, and pancreas. The juice of the vegetable is a laxative and antipyretic. Eaten daily as a bitter tonic, steamed bitter gourds are routinely suggested for the elderly, diabetics, hypoglycemics, and those with chronic disease or illness. it has also been shown to increase insulin production and to have anti-carcinogen properties. As it encourages proper digestion, bitter gourd is recommended for sluggish digestion, dysentery, chronic constipation, and flatulence. it is also reputed to be beneficial for poor eyesight and is high in the antioxidant vitamins A and C. Bitter gourd is listed in the Wat Po texts as an appetizer, purgative, antheimintic, and as a cure for leprosy. it appears in treatments for fever, infections, menstrual problems, hemorrhoids, and constipation.
Topical Application: The juice of the bitter gourd can be used topically on the skin and in the mouth as an antiseptic. The leaves are mentioned in the Wat Po texts in topical remedies for tendinitis, swellings, infections, and headaches.

Black Bean (Castanospormum australe) Tua Pum

Action: Antirheumatic,Diuretic
Taste: Oily
Part used: Bean, Pod
Internal Application: Black beans are used traditionally in dietary regimes for arthritis and other joint problems. Black beans also have been shown to lower blood sugar, and thus are recommended for diabetics and hypoglycemics. in Western herbalism, the pod of the plant is used for its diuretic properties in kidney or bladder disorders.

Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) Prik Thai Dam

Action: Antipyretic, Carminative, Digestive, Expectorant, Stimulant, Stomachic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Fruit
Internal Application: The fruit of the black pepper, also known as the peppercorn, turns red when it is ripe. The riper the seed, the more potent the medicinal effects, and fresh red seeds are the only type commonly used by herbalists. it is said, however, that the most medicinal peppercorns are those that are found in bird droppings. Black pepper is a hot herb used traditionally for treating colds, congestion, sore throat, sinusitis, and fever. Like most hot herbs, it is also a powerful digestion stimulant. It is also used to treat chronic coldness. temporary paralysis (such as Bell’s Palsy syndrome), and for general stimulation of the Fire element.

Blue Crab (Horseshoe Crab) Putalay

Action: Female Tonic, Nutritive Tonic
Taste: Salty
Part used: Claw of Scylla serrata, a seacrab.
Internal Application: The meat of the blue crab is prized by traditional Thai healers tor its tonic properties. it is typically given to children to protect from common childhood diseases and to women for tonification of the uterus and other female reproductive organs after pregnancy.

Heart-Leaved Moonseed (Tinospora tuherculata) Boraphet

Action: Antipyretic, Appetizer, Bitter Tonic, Stomachic
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Stem
Internal Application: Boraphet (pronounced “bora-pet”) is used to treat any disease in which fever is the initial symptom. It also stimulates the appetite and is considered to be a bittertonic especially beneficial forthe lungs, bile, and lymphatic system. The Wat Po texts mention Boraphet as a cure for intestinal parasites, stomach problems in babies, malaria, eye and ear disease, and for mucous congestion.

Bulletwood (Mimusops elengi) Mak sa koun

Action: Antipyretic, Antirheumatic, Cardiac, Female Tonic, Sedative
Taste: Aromatic
Part used: Flower, Wood
Internal Application: The bulletwood flower, like many herbs with aromatic taste, is taken either as tea or used in the sauna. It is administered through inhalation to treat arthritis, heart disease, as well as to calm anxiety, stress, and panic attacks. The tea is used to treat fevers, sore throat, and muscular pain. Tea made from the wood is considered to be a tonic for the heart and circulatory system, and a tonic for pregnancy, especially when the wood is infected by a particular fungus. Decoction of the stem bark is used as a gargle for gingivitis.

Butterfly Pea (Clitorea ternatea) Aan Chan

Action: Diuretic, Laxative, Stomachic
Part Used: Seed, Root
Internal Application:  The butterfly pea seed is used to treat constipation and to soothe stomach pains and cramps. The root has similar properties but is also a diuretic and an antirheumatic.

Burr Bush (Triumfetta rhomboidea) Sang

Action: Antipyretic, Stomachic
Part used: Whole plant
Internal Application: The burr bush is used to treat stomachache, indigestion, and to treat fever during menstruation.

Calamus (Acorus calamus) Waan nam

Action: Antirheumatic, Antispasmodic, Antitussive, Aphrodisiac, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Emetic, Emmenagogue, Expectorant, Nervine, Stimulant, Stomachic, Tonic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Flhizome
Internal Application: Calamus is a stomachic traditionally used to treat indigestion, heartburn, gastritis, and hyperacidity, as well as to encourage appetite. Like most hot herbs, it is an effective cold cure and decongestant. it is used particularly against cough, lung congestion, asthma, sinusitis, and fever. Calamus is considered to be a beneficial tonic and stimulant for the nervous system, especially the senses and the brain. Ayun/edic tradition prescribes calamus tea for sufferers of typhoid, epilepsy, deafness, and arthritis, and to help expel kidney stones. Taken daily, calamus is said to enhance memory and sexual energy. In Western herbalism, smokers are told to chew the fresh rhizome in orderto cause a slight bit of nausea which aids in quitting smoking.
Topical Application: Calamus is traditionally applied topically over painful joints and fractured or broken bones.
Caution: Calamus should not be used in cases of bleeding disorders, as it thins the blood.

Camphor (Cinnamonum camphora) Ga Ra boon

Action: Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antirheumatic, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Antitussive, Bronchodilator, Cardiac, Diaphoretic, Emmenagogue, Expectorant, Nervine, Sedative, Stimulant
Taste: Hot and Aromatic
Part used: Crystals derived from the gum of the tree trunk
Internal Application: Camphor is used in nearly all of the religious ceremonies in India and carries a spiritual connotation throughout the rest of Asia as well, As it burns without leaving any ash, it is commonly considered to be a metaphor for the Enlightened mind. Camphor crystals are a common ingredient in most Thai saunas, from the traditional hospitals to the modern health clubs. Camphor is a bronchodilator and a decongestant, and is inhaled to treat colds, congestion, sore throat, cough, bronchitis, and sinusitis. inhalation of camphor is also beneficial for irregular or blocked menstruation, eye infections, fevers, typhoid, and lung infections. Camphor crystals stimulate the brain, heart, and circulation, but paradoxically have a calmative effect on stress, anxiety, and insomnia. Camphor is therefore listed both as a calmative and a stimulant, and it is used both internally and externally in small quantities for both purposes. The wood of the camphor tree is used as an expectorant and carminative.
Topical Application: Camphor crystals are used topically as an anti-inflammatory for arthritis, sprains, and muscle pain, and as an antiseptic and analgesic on mild cuts, insect bites, and skin infections.
Caution: In large doses, camphor is a narcotic poison and may cause convulsions.

Candelabra Bush (Senna alata) Chumet Thet

Action: Antiparasitic, Antiseptic, Diuretic, Laxative
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Leaf, Flower
Internal Application: The candelabra bush, like other cassias, is used as a laxative. lt is mentioned in the Wat Po texts as a cure for constipation, flatulence, diarrhea caused by intestinal parasites, and blood or mucous in the stools. It is said that it should be “powdered together with zedoary and dusted on the body of a child who is difficult to rear, in order to prevent illness.”
Topical Application: The leaves of the candelabra bush are used topically as an antiseptic and antiparasitic for treatment of ringworm, fungal and bacterial skin infections, and wounds.
Note: Note that candelabra bush leaves may cause nausea and vomiting if the leaves are not fully roasted, and may cause cramping. This plant should not be used for children or patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Overdose may cause damage to kidneys. Prolonged use may cause chronic diarrhea.

Cardamon (Amomum kren) Krawaan

Action: Antitussive, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Expectorant, Stimulant, Stomachic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Seed
Internal Application: Cardamom is known for its stimulating qualities and soothing effects on the gastrointestinal system. The tea is taken all over the world for cases of flatulence, bloated stomach, sluggish digestion, irritable bowel syndrome, and gastritis, In Thailand, Siamese cardamom and bastard cardamom are used to ease stomach pain and cramping associated with gastritis and indigestion. Cardamom is also widely used as a cough suppressant, as well as to treat colds, bronchitis, asthma, and laryngitis.

Caricature Plant (Gmptophyllum pictum)

Action: Antipyretic, Blood Tonic, Tonic
Taste: Bland
Part used: Leaf
Internal Application: The caricature plant is used traditionally to detoxify the system, especially in cases of fever, chronic thirst, measles, or food poisoning. It is considered to be a tonic and detoxifying agent for the liver.
Cashew Anacardium occidental, Ma-muang-him-ma-pa
Action: Expectorant, Nutritive Tonic
Taste: Oily Part used: Nut, Leaf, Bark, Flower
Internal Application: Cashew nuts are a common ingredient in Thai appetizers and desserts, and are often stir—fried with chicken and sweet and sour sauce. As with most oily herbs, cashews nuts are recommended by traditional herbalists as a part of the daily diet for those suffering from skin or bone problems, chronic skin infections, dry skin, or frequent allergic rashes. As it is high in caloric energy, protein, and potassium, the cashew nut is a nutritive tonic that gives increased energy and strength, and is therefore beneficial in cases of emaciation, low immunity, low energy, and chronic disease. The young shoots and leaves are eaten raw or in soups, and are expectorants. Decoction of the bark or flower is used to treat diarrhea and dysentery.

Cassod Tree (Cassia siamea) Kee Lek

Action: Antioxidant, Antipyretic, Appetizer, Diuretic, Laxative, Sedative, Stomachic, Tonic
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Leaf, Shoot, Flower, Wood
Internal Application: The young leaves and flower buds of the cassod tree are often eaten in curries and soups. The wood is also used to reduce fever. The flowers and leaves of the cassod tree are used to treat insomnia and as a general tonic high in vitamins A and C. Both are effective laxatives, stimulating digestion and promoting appetite.

Cassumunar Ginger (Zingiber cassumunar) Phlai

Action: Anti-inflammatory, Astringent, Bronchodilator, Carminative, Emmenagogue, Laxative, Vulnerary
Taste: Hot
Part used: Rhizome
Internal Application: Juice squeezed from the fresh cassumunar rhizome is taken with salt for indigestion, dysentery, diarrhea, inflammation of the intestine, and injury to internal organs. It acts as an emmenagogue, as well as a bronchodilator for treatment of asthma. Some Hill-Tribes use cassumunar ginger to help new mothers recover after delivery.
Topical Application: Cassumunar ginger is used topically to soothe contusions, sprains, and inflammations of joints and ligaments. Like common ginger, it is also used topically as an antiseptic for wounds, cuts, and skin infections. Mixed with alcohol, it is an effective mosquito repellent.

Castor Oil Plant (Ricinus communis) Lahung

Action: Adjuvant, Diuretic, Galactogogue, Laxative
Part used: Oil pressed from Seed, Leaf
Internal Application: Castor oil is a gentle laxative used in Thailand mainly for the elderly and children, or as an adjuvant to other laxative or purgative remedies. Decoction of the leaf is used to stimulate breastmilk production and to increase urine to aid in expelling kidney and bladder stones and infections. The castor oil plant is used by Hill-Tribes for treatment of indigestion, ear problems, kidney disease, and post-partum recovery.
Topical Application: Castor oil is applied topically to clean wounds, infections, itching, dermatitis, rashes, inflammation, and over broken bones to speed healing.
Note: Use only coldexpressed castor oil. Hot-expressed oil is toxic.

Catechu (Acacia catechu) Seesiat Lao

Action: Antiemetic, Astringent, Purgative
Taste: Astringent
Part used: Resin
Internal Application: Catechu, known in Thai as “seesiat lao,” is an ingredient in the stimulant betel nut preparations chewed in many South Asian countries. The wood is also used for dying cloth. Medicinally, it is used as an astringent and is most often used for cases of diarrhea. Catechu is also taken in larger doses as a purgative in cases of intestinal parasites, food poisoning, and allergic reactions to food including hives and nausea.
Topical Application: As an astringent herb, catechu resin is frequently used topically to counteract boils, sores, skin ulcers, and infections

Cat’s Whisker (Orthosiphon aristatus) Ya Huad Maew

Action: Diuretic
Part used: Whole plant
Internal Application: As a diuretic, cat’s whisker is used to treat kidney disease, gallstones, and gout. It decreases the levels of uric acid and lowers cholesterol in the blood, and is said to be a tonic for the kidneys.
Topical Application: The whole plant is used topically to treat muscle pain.
Caution: Due to high potassium content, this herb may be dangerous for patients with heart disease.

Cayenne (Capsicum frutescens) Prik kheenuu

Action: Alterative, Anthelmintic, Antioxidant, Antiseptic, Cardiac, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Expectorant, Stimulant, Stomachic, Tonic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Fruit, Leaf
Internal Application: As a hot herb, the fruit of the cayenne pepper is useful in cases of colds, flu, and congestion. A stimulant of digestion, it relieves constipation, indigestion. intestinal cramps, irritable bowel, and gastritis, and tends to increase appetite. Cayenne is a circulatory stimulant, used to treat low blood pressure, fainting, and circulatory deficiency. As an antioxidant rich in vitamins A and C, it is useful as a general tonic and detoxifier, and may be used as an adiuvant herb in preparations to boost immunity.
Topical Application: Essential oil of cayenne is frequently used in hot herbal compresses to relax tense muscles. lt increases blood supply to skin and mucous membranes.
Caution: Do not use on sensitive skin. Topical application should be of cayenne oil, not the fresh fruits, and should be of low dosage to prevent irritation or blistering of skin. If any irritation results from topical or internal application of cayenne, discontinue use.

Champaca (Michelia champaca) Champee

Action: Antiemetic, Antipyretic, Cardiac, Diuretic, Nervine, Stimulant
Taste: Aromatic
Part used: Whole plant
Internal Application: Tea from the champaca flower, like many aromatic herbs, is used to treat fever, chronic fatigue, and low immunity. It is also prescribed traditionally as a tonic for the heart, the nervous system, and the blood. Both the flower and the fruit are diuretic, antiemetic, antipyretic, and are considered to be general tonics for the four elements. The leaf is used for neural disorders, the bark of the stem is antipyretic, and the wood is a menstrual tonic.
Topical Application: Decoction of the champaca flower is applied to the temples to relieve headache, Decoction of the dried ground root in milk is applied to abscesses.

Chebulic Myrobalan (Terminalia chebula) Samoh Thai

Action: Anthelmintic, Antipyretic, Antitumor, Antitussive, Astringent, Blood Tonic, Demulcent, Expectorant, Hemostatic, Laxative, Nervine, Tonic
Taste: Astringent
Part used: Fruit
Internal Application: The chebulic myrobalan fruit is a very important herb in the Ayurvedic tradition, and consequently, in the Royal Thai tradition as well. The unripe fruit is a common detoxifying remedy forfever, parasitic infections, spleen disorders, jaundice, skin disease, and allergic reactions of the skin. Chebulic myrobalan corrects digestive disorders and can be used for constipation, diarrhea, dysentery, and intestinal parasites. It also has a beneficial effect on the nervous system, nervous disorders, and cancerous tumors. It is an expectorant used for colds, congestion, cough, asthma, bronchitis, and laryngitis, and an astringent used to halt blood or mucous in stool, sputum, or vaginal discharge. The ripe fruit is astringent, demulcent, and anti diarrhea.

Chinese Chive (Allium tuberosum) Kui Chaai

Action: Anthelmintic, Diuretic, Emmenagogue, Galactogogue
Taste: Hot
Part used: Leaf, Stem, Seed
Internal Application: The Chinese chive is primarily used traditionally to increase the
production of urine in order to treat kidney or bladder stones, dysuria [insufficient or painful
urination, and gonorrhea. The leaves of the Chinese chive increase the production of breast milk.
Topical Application: Chinese chive seeds are used to kill insects which have entered into the ear canal.

Chiretta (Andrographis paniculata) Fa Thalaai

Action: Alterative, Antiallergic, Anti-inflammatory, Antipyretic, Astringent, Bitter Tonic, Blood Tonic, Cholagogue, Stomachic
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Leaf, Bud, Young Shoot
Internal Application: Chiretta tea is reputed to be excellent for ailments of the upper respiratory system, including cold with congestion, sore throat, bronchitis, tonsillitis, hay fever, and other allergies. As a bitter tonic, it is particularly stimulating for the liver and increases production of bile. lt has a beneficial effect on all liver and gall bladder disorders, as well as diabetes and hypoglycemia. Chiretta is a detoxifying herb, useful in cases of intestinal infection such as dysentery and other diarrhea, and in cleansing the blood. Chiretta is also used to relieve constipation, treat fever, and to reduce blood pressure.
Topical Application: Fresh Chiretta stalks are used to treat toothaches and abscesses.
Caution: ln larger doses, Chiretta may cause nausea.

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum) Geh Huay

Action: Alterative, Antipyretic, Antispasmodic, Bitter, Tonic, Cardiac, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Emmenagogue, Nervine, Sedative, Stimulant
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Flower
Internal Application: Iced chrysanthemum tea is one of the most popular drinks in Thailand. It is reputed to be a stimulant and tonic for the eyes, liver, heart, and nervous system. Therapeutically, chrysanthemum is used to treat all disorders of the liver and eyes, irregular or blocked menstruation, menstrual cramps, and PMS. It is also said to cure headaches and sore throat, to lower fever, and to calm the mind.

Cinchona (Cinchona succirubra)

Action: Analgesic, Antipyretic, Antiseptic, Astringent, BitterTonic, Nervine, Stomachic
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Bark
Internal Application: Until the advent of more potent synthetic medications, cinchona was the remedy of choice for malaria. lt is still used for this purpose in isolated areas of rural Thailand and throughout Southeast Asia in places where modern drugs and medical attention are unavailable. ln smaller doses, cinchona is also useful for cases of influenza and fever, and as a daily bitter tonic to promote health and longevity.
Caution: In large doses, cinchona may cause headaches, dizziness, or stomach irritation. Cinchona may cause uterine contractions and should be avoided by pregnant women.

Citronella Grass (Cymbopogon nardus) Ta Khrai Nom

Action: Blood Tonic, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Emmenagogue, Stimulant, Stomachic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Leaf,EssentialOil,Flhizome
Internal Application: Infusion of citronella leaves is soothing to the stomach and helps counter flatulence, stomachache, indigestion, intestinal cramps, irritable bowel, and gastritis. The essential oil is also diaphoretic and stimulant, and promotes internal detoxification through encouraging sweating. The rhizome encourages regular menstruation, treats blocked menstruation, and halts excessive vaginal discharge. Citronella is used to induce labor, as it promotes uterine contractions. lt also acts as a diuretic.
Topical Application: Citronella is a natural insect repellent, and rural Thais place a bowl of pounded citronella leaves under the bed to ward off mosquitoes during the night.
Caution: Citronella should never be used internally by pregnant women.

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) Kan Pluu

Action: Analgesic, Antiemetic, Antiseptic, Aphrodisiac, Blood Tonic, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Emmenagogue, Expectorant, Female Tonic, Stimulant, Stomachic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Flower
Internal Application: Like most hot herbs, clove is a digestion stimulant used traditionally to counter flatulence and indigestion. Hot herbs are also effective expectorants and are called for in cases of the common cold, especially with accompanying congestion. Clove is used frequently for this purpose, as well as for cough, bronchitis, lymph problems, and asthma. Clove tea is very effective for controlling nausea and vomiting, and is also used traditionally for lymph disease and uterine disorders. Due to its stimulating effect on the Fire element, clove tea warms the body, combating chronic coldness, hypothermia, chilblains and frost-nip. The herb is reputed to have aphrodisiac qualities, although this is probably due to a general stimulating effect.
Topical Application: Topically, cloves have an antiseptic and analgesic effect, and they are therefore used both on the skin and in the mouth for sores and cuts. A gargle of tea is also beneficial for sore throat and toothaches.

Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Ma Phrao

Action: Diuretic, Emollient, Nutritive Tonic, Refrigerant
Taste: Sweet
Part used: Meat of the coconut
Internal Application: The coconut palm is one of the most useful plants in Thailand. The fibrous husks of the coconut are used to make rope, mats, and brushes. Young green coconuts are prized for their sweet water, while the mature nut is shredded, mixed with hot water, and strained to produce coconut cream, An essential ingredient in Thai curries, coconut cream is frequently eaten as a nutritive tonic in cases of low immunity, low energy, emaciation, and wasting, and coconut milk may be used as a milk substitute for vegans or the lactose intolerant.
Topical Application: Coconut oil is an indispensable ingredient in cosmetics, as well as cooking [see Chapter lll for more information). As it possesses emollient properties, it is applied topically to burns, wounds, and skin lesions, to soothe pain and promote healing.

Combretum (Combretum quadrangulare) Sa-kae

Action: Analgesic, Anthelmintic
Taste: Toxic
Part used: Seed, Root, Leaf
Internal Application: Combretum seeds are used traditionally to purge tapeworms and other intestinal parasites. Decoction of the root is used to treat venereal disease, and decoction of the leaves is used to combat narcotic addiction. A poultice from the leaves is used topically to relieve muscular pain. The Wat Po texts further recommend combretum for treatment of bladder stones and abdominal distention.

Corkwood Tree (Sesbania) Khae

Action: Antipyretic, Astringent, Hemostatic
Taste: Astringent
Part used: Leaf, Stem-bark
Internal Application: The bark of the corkwood tree stem is an astringent used to combat diarrhea and dysentery. The fresh leaves are used in decoction to treat fever.
Topical Application: Decoction of the stem-bark is used topically on wounds and cuts as a hemostatic.

Crocodile Jarakae

Action: Bitter Tonic, Female Tonic
Taste: Bitter Part used: Bilefrom gall-bladder of Crocodylus siamensis
Internal Application: Crocodile bile is an expensive but sought-after tonic for the uterus and other female reproductive organs, used immediately following pregnancy. lt is traditionally held to be a bitter tonic for the blood in both sexes and to treat low immunity, low energy, fainting, and vertigo.

Culantro (Eryngium foetidum) Phak-chee farang

Action: Blood Tonic, Laxative, Purgative
Part used: Leaf, Bud, Young Shoot
Internal Application: Used to flavor soups and curries. Medicinally, it is used as a laxative and as a detoxifying purgafive for malaria, allergic reactions, and poisonous insect bites.

Cuttlefish Pla Muuk

Action: Nutritive Tonic
Taste: Salty
Part used: Meat of Sepia Opp
Internal Application: Cuttlefish is considered a nutritive tonic which promotes general health and well-being. As a regular part of the diet, it is also said to be a remedy for chronic diseases of the teeth and gums, for mouth sores, acne, and skin diseases.

Daeng (Xylia xylocarpa)

Action: Antipyretic, Astringent, Female Tonic, Laxative, Tonic
Part used: Whole plant
Internal Application: The flower of the daeng is a cardiac tonic and is also prescribed for fever. The stem-bark is traditionally used to counter fever as well, and is an antidiarrheal. Decoction of the wood is a laxative and is a tonic used to treat uterine, ovarian, and lung diseases and cancers. Either the wood or the stem-bark can be used daily as an astringent to counter internal bleeding and blood in the vomit, stool, or vaginal discharge.

Damask Rose (Rosa darnascena) Kulaap Mon

Action: Alterative, Astringent, Calmative, Carminative, Cholagogue, Emmenagogue, Laxative, Nervine, Refrigerant, Sedative
Taste: Aromatic
Part used: Flower
Internal Application: Rosewater is a common ingredient in Asian desserts. Hot or cold, it may be used as a stimulant to counter low immunity, low energy, and chronic fatigue. The tea is a cholagogue, or bile stimulant, which aids in digestion and assimilation of nutrients, and encourages regular menstruation. Rose flowers are added to the traditional sauna or steam bath for eye disorders and infections, and for a relaxing effect on nervous disorders, anxiety, insomnia, tension headaches, and stress.

Datura (Datum metel) Lanpong Khao

Action: Antiemetic, Antiparasitic, Antipyretic, Antiseptic, Antitussive, Expectorant, Nenrine, Tonic
Taste: Toxic
Part used: Whole plant
Internal Application: The Wat Po texts mention datura as a remedy for many ailments. Powder from the dried seeds of the datura plant is used in small doses to treat fever and as a cerebral tonic. The flower is dried and smoked by asthmatics as a bronchodilator and also curbs nausea. Decoction of the root is also used to treat asthma, as well as bronchitis and cough. Decoction of the leaves is used traditionally to treat mucous or blood in the stool, and the juice of the fruit is administered in drops to treat infections of the ear.
Topical Application: A poultice made from the seeds of the datura is used topically to treat ringworm and other skin parasites. This poultice or a decoction from the fresh root may be used to treat toothache and abscesses.

Ebony Fee (Diospyros mollis) Ma Kluea

Action: Anthelmintic, Tonic
Taste: Toxic (root, fruit), Salty (bark)
Part used: Root, Fruit, Bark
Internal Application: The fruits of the ebony tree are used traditionally to make a black dye for cloth. Medicinally, they are used to purge the intestines of tapeworms and other
parasites. The Wat Po texts mention ebony tree root as a remedy for vomiting and nausea, and the bark as a remedy for emaciation or wasting associated with chronic illnesses.
Caution: Not for use by children under l0 years of age, post-partum women, or anyone with gastrointestinal complaints. Use with caution, as overdose may cause blindness.

Emblic Myrobalan (Phyllanthus emblica) Ma Khaam Bom

Action: Antioxidant, Antipyretic, Antitussive, Aphrodisiac, Astringent, Blood Tonic, Diuretic, Expectorant, Hemostatic, Laxative, Nutritive Tonic, Refrigerant, Stornachic
Taste: Sour
Part used: Fruit
Internal Application: The emblic myrobalan is used traditionally for respiratory afflictions including colds, congestion, cough, and asthma, as well as for indigestion. The fruit is one of the highest natural sources of vitamin C and is a traditional daily tonic for the brain, nervous system, blood, bones, liver, spleen, stomach, heart, eyes, hair, bones, nails, teeth and gums. Because of its detoxifying and antioxidant properties, emblic myrobalan is especially beneficial for those with frequent colds, low immunity, smokers, and those who live in polluted environments. In Thailand, the dried, pickled fruits are sold in bags, and eaten like we in the West would eat prunes. Emblic myrobalan is one of the most commonly used herbs in the Ayurvedic system, employed to increase immunity, regulate the digestive system, and to treat fever, internal bleeding, diabetes, hypoglycemia, gout, gastritis, hepatitis and other liver disease, jaundice, constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, anxiety, stress, chronic fatigue, low immunity, low energy, osteoporosis, and for aiding in convalescence from chronic disease.

Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus)

Action: Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Antitussive, Expectorant, Diaphoretic, Stimulant
Taste: Hot and Aromatic
Part used: Leaf, Oil
Internal Application: Eucalyptus is a popular herbal remedy in Thailand, and it has even become somewhat fashionable among young Thais to carry around a vial of eucalyptus and peppermint oil for frequent sniffing. There are many species of eucalyptus, most of which can be used medicinally. Eucalyptus is an extremely effective treatment for colds, especially those with excessive congestion of the sinus and/or lungs, as well as cough, bronchitis, asthma, sore throat, and other respiratory ailments. Symptoms are relieved by inhalation of the vapors, by tea, or by topical application to chest, throat, and under the nose. Eucalyptus tea is also good for indigestion and fever. Hill-Tribes use eucalyptus tea internally as an analgesic and a cold remedy, and the inhalation to stop nosebleeds.
Topical Application: The eucalyptus is one of the most potent antiseptic and antibacterial herbs. Leaves are used topically on ulcers, infections, and sores of the skin, and may be safely applied to burns. A poultice may also be used on sprains, bruises, and sore muscles. A few fresh leaves or a small amount of pure eucalyptus oil may be mixed with warm water and used as a gargle for sore throats, cough, and mouth sores.
Caution: Taken internally in large doses, eucalyptus may be poisonous. Take care when using essential oils to adjust dosage.

False Daisy (Eclipta prostrate) Kameng

Action: Alterative, Antiparasitic, Antipyretic, Carminative, Hemostatic, Laxative, Tonic, Vulnerary
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Whole plant
Internal Application: The whole plant of the false daisy is used to treat chest infections, asthma, and bronchitis. It is a carminative used to expel gas from the lower intestines. lt is also considered to be a longevity tonic and a tonic for the liver, spleen, and blood, and it is used to treat cirrhosis, hepatitis, and anemia. The leaf and root are used as a laxative. The root is used for cases of flatulence, temporary paralysis, and fainting or feeling of exhaustion post-partum. The juice of the stem is prescribed for jaundice.
Topical Application: A poultice of the false daisy may be used topically for skin diseases and ringworm. The decoction may be added to olive or coconut oil and massaged into the scalp as a hair tonic to prevent hair loss and early greying. The same oil may also be used as a topical anti-inflammatory.

Finger Root (Boesenbergiu pandurata) Krachai

Action: Anthelmintic, Antiallergic, Carminative, Digestive, Stomachic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Root, Leaf
Internal Application: Finger root is a common ingredient in Thai soups and curries. As a digestive, it is traditionally included in the diet to aid sluggish digestion, flatulence, and indigestion. The rhizome is also used for tooth and gum disease, diarrhea, dysentery, and as a general diuretic. Tea made from the finger root leaves is employed in cases of food poisoning and allergic reactions to food.

Foetid Cassia (Cassia tom) Nha lap meun

Action: Anthelmintic, Antipruritic, Antipyretic, Diuretic, Laxative, Purgative, Sedative
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Seed, Stem, Root
Internal Application: Decoction of foetid cassia seeds is preferred in cases of acute constipation and intestinal worms for its purging action on the bowels. It is also used to calm fevers, to lessen inflammation of the eyes, to lower high blood pressure and cholesterol, as a diuretic, and as a sedative. Decoction of the stem and/or root is also diuretic and may be used topically to stop itching.

Galangal (Alpinia galanga) Khaa

Action: Antiemetic, Antiparasitic, Antiseptic, Aphrodisiac, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Digestive, Expectorant, Stimulant, Stomachic, Tonic
Taste: Hot Part used: Rhizome
Internal Application: Galangal is used in Thai medicine in a very similar way to ginger. Ginger is considered to be a superior herb, but galangal is more common in Thailand. lt’s flavor is distinctive, and galangal is an indispensable ingredient in Thai soups and curries. It is the key ingredient in the Thai national dish, Tom Yam soup (See Chapter lll for recipe]. As a hot herb, the galangal rhizome has a stimulating effect on the digestion, and is therefore useful in cases of indigestion, flatulence, and stomachache, It is also recommended for diarrhea, nausea, and seasickness. Galangal is reputed to be an aphrodisiac, although this is probably due to its general stimulating effect on the Fire element.
Topical Application: Galangal has a antiseptic action similar to ginger and may be used topically for bacterial and fungal skin infections, acne, mosquito bites, bee stings, other insect bites, and as a gargle for mouth.

Gandaria (Bouea Macrophylla) Maprang

Action: Antipyretic, Blood Tonic, Expectorant, Laxative
Taste: Sour
Part used: Fruit
Internal Application: Gandaria is a small fruit with flavor similar to a mango but with the appearance of a plum. lt is used traditionally as a treatment for fever, congestion of the bronchi, mouth sores, and constipation. lt is also used to detoxify the blood.

Garden Balsam (Impatiens balsamina) Thian baan

Action: Antipruritic
Part used: Leaf
Topical Application: Garden balsam leaves are applied topically to eczema, skin ulcers, insect bites, allergic reactions, hives, sores, wounds, and bacterial infection of the skin and nails. The Hill-Tribes use the garden balsam topically for inflammation and low immunity and internally as a general tonic and as an aid in the delivery of babies.

Garcinia (Garcinia indica) Som Kak

Action: Alterative, Anthelmintic, Antitumor, Digestive
Part used: Fruit
Internal Application: Garcinia aids in weight loss by accelerating the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. lt is safe for long term use and has been the subject of numerous tests in the U.S. and Europe as a natural alternative to chemical weight-loss drugs. It is used in Thailand as a dietary supplement for suppressing the appetite. It is also used traditionally for constipation, edema, intestinal parasites, sluggish digestions, and for increasing body heat. lt is being researched for antitumor and anticancerous properties.

Garlic (Allium sativum) Krathiam

Action: Alterative, Anthelmintic, Antipyretic, Antirheumatic, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Antitussive, Aphrodisiac, Blood Tonic, Cardiac, Carrninative, Cholagogue, Digestive, Diuretic, Expectorant, Refrigerant, Stimulant, Stomachic, Tonic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Bulb
Internal Application: Along with ginger, garlic is one of the most useful herbs in Eastern and Western traditions alike. Garlic is one of the most commonly used herbs in Thai cuisine and is a key ingredient in many Thai dishes. Garlic is a digestive with carminative action of particular use in cases of flatulence and indigestion. Hot herbs are also effective expectorants successfully used to fight colds, congestion, asthma, bronchitis, and cough. Garlic is a potent detoxifying agent and is therefore beneficial in fighting liver disease, toxic colon, and in general detoxification of the blood and organs. In large doses, garlic has a purgative effect on intestinal worms and other parasites, and is used to prevent malaria and dengue lit is said that mosquitoes won’t bite one who eats garlic frequently). Other diseases benefited by garlic include arthritis, heart disease, gall bladder disease, fever, and cystitis. Garlic reputedly lowers blood cholesterol, lowers high blood pressure, raises low blood pressure, and is recognized in many cultures the world over as a stimulating aphrodisiac.

Gingko (Gingko biloba)

Action: Antioxidant, Antitussive, Astringent, Expectorant, Nervine, Stimulant
Part used: Leaf
Internal Application: Gingko improves blood circulation, particularly to the brain, and is commonly prescribed to older individuals to maintain mental acuity through old age and to counter or prevent Alzheimer’s disease. It may also be used by younger individuals to enhance memory and mental clarity, and as a rich source of detoxifying antioxidants. Gingko has also been shown to have a beneficial effect on depression, mood swings, arthritis, arteriosclerosis, stress, anxiety, bronchitis, and can be used to treat varicose veins and other disorders due to chronic circulatory deficiency.
Preparation: Gingko tea should be taken 2-3 times daily for 3 months for noticeable effect. It is often mixed with Gotu Kola in a 1 to l ratio.

Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Soam

Action: Alterative, Antiallergic, Antiemetic, Aphrodisiac, Cardiac, Demulcent, Tonic, Nervine, Nutritive Tonic, Stimulant, Stomachic
Taste: Hot and Sweet
Part used: Hizome
Internal Application: Ginseng is an example of an herb prized by Chinese medicine that has made its way into the Thai tradition. Almost every sizable grocery store in Thailand has a well—stocked shelf of ginseng extracts and products imponed from China or Korea. The extract of the ginseng rhizome is said to be the best longevity tonic for males and is frequently taken by men over 50 on a daily basis. it is held to be a powerful aphrodisiac and a sure cure for impotence, premature ejaculation, and other male sexual dysfunctions. For both sexes, it is a cardiac tonic which helps strengthen the heart and circulatory system, while reducing cholesterol and blood sugar, Ginseng is used as a stimulant for the entire system and to counter low immunity, low energy, chronic fatigue, stress, debility, and emaciation. As a demulcent, ginseng is also useful in cases of nausea, vomiting, sinusitis, hay fever, and other allergies, It is also used to treat blood diseases, irregular menstruation, colds, and bronchial infections.

Golden Rain Tree (Cassia fistula) Khuun

Action: Antipyretic, Expectorant, Laxative, Purgative, Stimulant, Tonic
Taste: Astringent
Part used: Seed Pod, Flower
Internal Application: The black, sticky pulp surrounding the seeds of the golden shower is used traditionally as a laxative and expectorant. In larger doses, it is a purgative. Tea from the flower is also a laxative and an antipyretic. Hill-Tribes use the flowers in the steam bath or sauna to treat vertigo, low energy, and fainting, and as a general tonic for health and longevity.

Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Cha-keay

Action: Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Astringent, BitterTonic, Cardiac, Digestive, Diuretic, Stomachic
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Leaf
Internal Application: Green tea is possibly the most popular beverage in Asia, although Thailand’s consumption is somewhat less than China’s or Japan’s. Mostly, green tea’s beneficial properties are due to tannins, antibiotic alkaloids that occur naturally in the leaf. ln modern times, green tea has been shown to be rich in antioxidants, which seems to confirm its long-standing reputation as a general tonic. Taken regularly, green tea promotes a healthy immune system, protecting against infections and cancers of the respiratory and digestive systems. Green tea has a regulating and alkalizing effect on the digestive systemand helps both constipation and diarrhea. In general it is useful as a digestive, althoug different processing and roasting methods produce differing results. Green tea also is beneficial for blood circulation, aids in disinfecting bacterial infections of the mouth, and protects against tooth and gum disease.
Topical Application: Applied topically, green tea is an anti-inflammatory for burns and skin irritations.
Note: Black tea is made from the oxidized leaves of C. sinensis but does not share all of green tea’s therapeutic qualities.

Guava (Psidium guajava) Farang

Action: Antiseptic, Astringent, Emmenagogue, Laxative, Sedative
Taste: Astringent
Part used: Leaf, Fruit
Internal Application: Guava is most commonly prescribed traditionally for diarrhea because of the astringent qualities of the leaves and unripe fruit. As a tea it is also useful to treat cases of blocked or irregular menstruation, and cases of chronic stress or anxiety.

Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Thian King

Action: Alterative, Antiparasitic, Antipyretic, Antiseptic
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Leaf
Topical Application: Powdered henna leaf is widely used in India to dye hair. The fresh leaf may be applied as a topical antiseptic to fungal and/or bacterial infections of the skin and nails. It is also used to treat ringworm and may be used orally as a gargle for mouth and gum disease or infections.

Hibiscus (Hibiscus sinensis) Krachiap Daeng

Action: Antitussive, Carminative, Diuretic, Expectorant, Refrigerant, Tonic
Taste: Astringent
Part used: Flower
Internal Application: Hibiscus tea or juice is primarily prescribed as a diuretic for cases of gallstones, kidney stones, and urinary tract infections. It is additionally used to treat indigestion, flatulence, peptic ulcer, fever, cough, hypertension, kidney cramps, and back pain. It is high in calcium and therefore is added to the daily diet to treat and prevent tooth and bone deterioration. Hibiscus flower is held to lower blood cholesterol. The seed is also a diuretic, and is a tonic for the four elements.

Holy Basil (Ocymum sanctum) Kaphrao Daeng

Action: Antipyretic, Antirheumatic, Antispasmodic, Antitussive, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Laxative, Nervine, Stomachic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Leaf, Bud, Young Shoot, Seed
Internal Application: Holy basil is so called because it is considered sacred in many parts of South Asia. In lndia, where it is the favored herbs of the Brahmins, it is said to promote spiritual purity and to strengthen the mind. While not necessarily considered sacred in Thailand, this herb is indispensable in cooking and is the primary condiment for most Thai soups and curries. Holy basil is a common ingredient in treatments for colds and flu. lt is the perfect digestive and is a simple remedy for gastritis, irritable bowel, indigestion, flatulence, nausea, and vomiting. As an antispasmodic, it is useful for any stomach or intestinal cramping, including those caused by irritable bowel syndrome, peptic ulcer, and gastritis. Holy basil is also used in treatments for easing headaches, cough, sinusitis, and arthritis. While the herb may be used to combat constipation, the seeds are more effective laxatives. Some Hill-Tribes use basil in the steam bath or sauna for eye infections or pain, and topically as a poultice for fungal infections.

Honey Nam Pueng

Action: Adjuvant, Antitussive, Demulcent, Emollient, Nutritive Tonic
Taste: Sweet
Internal Application: Honey has a soothing effect on the throat and is typically used in traditional Thai herbalism as an adiuvant, or helping herb, with other remedies, especially treatments of colds, cough, sore throat, and asthma. Honey contributes to general strength and well being, and is therefore used in nutritive preparations for longevity and convalescence, as well as in general tonics. In the case of cough and sore throat, it may be taken by the spoonful as necessary to soothe symptoms.

Ironweed (Vernonia cimzrea) Seua Saam Khaa

Action: Antirheumatic, Antitussive, BitterTonic, Digestive, Emrnenagogue, Stomachic
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Leaf, Flower, Rhizome
Internal Application: lronweed is a Thai cure-all and is often used as a detoxifying bitter tonic for daily consumption. lt is prescribed in cases of diabetes and hypoglycemia to reduce blood sugarand to prevent sores and skin ulcers. lt is successfully used as well forcolds and respiratory disorders such as cough and asthma, arthritis, urinary tract infections, blocked or irregular menstruation, jaundice, back pain, and beri-beri. Thais trying to quit smoking drink lronweed tea daily to help overcome the side effects associated with nicotine withdrawal. lronweed is also a digestive which promotes the natural processes of the digestive system, offering relief from stornachaches and peptic ulcers.

Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica) Tam Loeng

Action: Antipruritic, Antipyretic, Purgative, Tonic
Taste: Bland
Part used: Leaf
Internal Application: lvy gourd leaves are taken in decoction as a purgative and for food poisoning. It lowers fevers and is used by some Hill Tribes as a tonic for general health and strength.
Topical Application: lvy gourd is applied topically to insect bites, hives, allergic rashes, itching, inflamed wounds, and rashes from poisonous plants.

Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) Kanun

Action: Demulcent, Nutritive Tonic
Taste: Oily
Part used: Seed
Internal Application: The jackfruit is an enormous fruit which often grows up to 3 feet in length. The heartwood of the jackfruit tree is used by monks in rural Northeastern Thailand’s “Forest Tradition” monasteries to dye their robes. Chips of wood are boiled in water, producing a rich earth-tone dye called ”gaen-kanun,” which is held to have remarkable medicinal qualities. In fact, monks of this tradition never wash their robes. Once a week, the robes are re-boiled in iackfruit dye, and are hung to dry in the sun. Flobes treated in this manner are said to never smell bad, and monks swear by the protection the dyed robes impart to the skin – such as immunity from fungal infections, skin disorders and disagreeable body odor. All over Thailand, the fleshy tulip-shaped segments of the jackfruit are eaten raw when ripe and are cooked in curries when unripe. The seed is a tonic for promotion of general health and invigoration of energy. The seeds are boiled or roasted, and are eaten in curry. As it is a nutritive tonic high in caloric energy, jackfruit seed is especially useful in convalescence, in cases of low immunity, low energy, chronic fatigue, or chronic illness and in old age.

Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Mali

Action: Alterative, Antipyretic, Antiseptic, Astringent, Cardiac, Emmenagogue, Nervine, Sedative
Taste: Aromatic
Part used: Flower
Internal Application: Jasmine flowers are considered by Buddhists to be sacred, and they play a part in any temple ceremony in Thailand. Strung into garlands, they are often hung from the rear-view mirrors of cars as a talisman against misfortune and are placed by devotees at the foot of Buddha statues as an offering. Jasmine flowers are common ingredients in the herbal steam baths or saunas. The Wat Po texts prescribes many different species of jasmine for snake bite, smallpox, diarrhea, dysentery, chest pain, fever, convulsions, poisoning, and tetanus. The vapor of Jasminum officinale is a calmative for stress, anxiety, nervousness, and panic attacks. Jasmine inhalations and tea are both beneficial for disorders, diseases, and infections of the eyes and for heart disease, fever, and chronic thirst. Jasmine is being researched for its anti cancerous properties.

Jewel Vine (Derris scandens) Tao Wan Prieng

Action: Analgesic, Antispasmodic, Diuretic, Purgative
Part used: Stem
Internal Application: The stem of the jewel vine is a diuretic and a detoxifying purgative with no laxative action. It is best used for mucous congestion, internal infections, severe colds, and dysentery, where antimicrobial action is desired without agitation of the gastrointestinal tract.
Topical Application: A poultice from the jewel vine is applied topically to soothe muscular pain or spasms, pulled ligaments, and tendinitis. Caution: Jewel vine contains estrogen-like substances, and long-term use should be avoided. Those with hormone imbalances should not use this herb.

Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystix) Ma Krut

Action: Antioxidant, Antitussive, Astringent, Blood Tonic, Carminative, Emmenagogue, Expectorant, Stomachic
Taste: Sour-bitter
Part used: Juice of Fruit, Rind, Leaf
Internal Application: Kaffir lime leaves are frequently used in Thai cuisine to add a tangy flavor to soups and curries. The leaf is considered to be more medicinal than the fruit, although the juice and rind can also be used. Kaffir lime leaves and fruits are one ofthe main ingredients used in the traditional Thai herbal compresses, as well as in the sauna. Inhaled or ingested, kaffir lime is useful for treatment of colds, congestion, and cough. Taken internally, it is a digestion stimulant which alleviates flatulence and indigestion, and is used to promote regularity in the case of blocked or infrequent menstruation. lt is well known as a blood purifier, as an antioxidant with cancer-preventing properties, and is used to treat high blood pressure.

Lacquer Tree (Rhus verniciflua) Flac

Action: Analgesic, Antirheumatic, Astringent
Taste: Astringent
Part used: Leaf
Internal Application: The lacquer tree is the source of a dark dye used traditionally for dying robes and for ink. Tea from the leaves of the lacquer tree is used traditionally to treat diarrhea and intestinal parasites such as dysentery.
Topical Application: A poultice can be made to apply topically to joint pains and arthritis.

Lemon (Citrus limonum) Manow

Action: Adjuvant, Antiseptic, Antitussive, Astringent, Carminative, Expectorant, Refrigerant
Taste: Sour (fruit), Bitter (rind)
Part used: Juice of Fruit, Rind
Internal Application: Lemon juice is a common ingredient in cold-care treatments and is frequently added to teas to complement other herbs. Lemon juice is used to treat colds, cough, headaches, fever, arthritis and jaundice.
Topical Application: Lemon is also used topically and orally as an astringent and antibacterial wash for treatment of sores. It may also be used immediately on burns as a refrigerant.

Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Ta khrai

Action: Antiemetic, Anti-inflammatory, Antitussive, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Digestive, Diuretic, Expectorant, Refrigerant, Stomachic, Tonic
Taste: Hot and Aromatic
Part used: Stem
Internal Application: The lower part of the lemongrass stalk (technically the rhizome) is white in color and possesses the strongest flavor. This part of the lemongrass is a common ingredient in Thai soups and curries. (See Chapter lll for recipe ideas.) Lemongrass tea is used as a therapy for colds, congestion, fever, cough, sore throat and laryngitis. As a hot herb, lemongrass is also useful as a digestion stimulant in cases of flatulence, indigestion and constipation. Lemongrass is also used to counter stomach pains, nausea, vomiting, and back pain. Lemongrass is used by Hill Tribes as a general tonic, for bone and joint pain, and topically for sprains, bruises, and sore muscles.

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Cha Aim Tead

Action: Antitussive, Demulcent, Diuretic, Expectorant, Laxative, Stimulant
Taste: Sweet
Part used: Root
Internal Application: Licorice root is most commonly used in the Thai tradition in cold remedies, as well as for flu, cough, congestion, and fever. lt is useful for soothing mucous membranes and may be used in cases of stomach pain, peptic ulcers, sore throat, laryngitis, lung disease, and bronchial infections. ln the Western traditions, licorice is used as a laxative to counter flatulence and constipation and is gentle enough to be safe for children and infants. As a diuretic, it is also useful against infections and disorders of the bladder and kidneys, kidney stones, diabetes, and hypoglycemia. Licorice is a general stimulant, with a particular effect on the circulatory system and the heart. It increases blood pressure and stimulates the heart muscle.
Caution: Licorice is a hypertensive and may not be appropriate for people with high blood pressure.

Lime (Citrus acida) Ma Nao

Action: Antitussive, Appetizer, Astringent, Blood Tonic, Carminative, Digestive, Emmenagogue, Expectorant, Refrigerant, Stomachic
Taste: Sour (fruit), Bitter (rind), Bland (root)
Part used: Juice of fruit, Rind
Internal Application: ln traditional Thai herbalism, the kaffir lime is almost always preferred because of its stronger medicinal effects. However, when it is unavailable, the common lime maybe used. Like the kaffir, the common lime is useful for treatment of colds, congestion, and cough. lt is a digestion stimulant which alleviates flatulence and indigestion. Lime juice is considered to be a blood tonic and is used to promote regularity in the case of blocked or infrequent menstruation. The Wat Po texts mention lime leaf as a remedy for asthma, epilepsy, parasites, blood diseases, fevers, poisoning, headache, cough, mucous congestion, sore throat, and mouth sores. Thejuice is mentioned as a cure for cough and cold and as an appetizer. The root is mentioned as a cure for dysentery, gonorrhea, and fever.

Long Pepper (Piper retrofractum) Dee Plee

Action: Antitussive, Carminative, Demulcent, Digestive, Expectorant, Female Tonic, Stomachic, Tonic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Fruit
Internal Application: The dried unripe fruit of the long pepper is a locally occurring relative of the black pepper commonly used as a spice in pickling and is a popular remedy used to treat colds, cough, and congestion, as well as for stimulating digestion in the case of indigestion or flatulence. lt is used to treat any type of stomachache or cramps, and is also effective against diarrhea. The fruit is a tonic for the four elements, and is used to tonify the uterus after childbirth by encouraging uterine contraction.
Caution: Long pepper may be an abortifacient and should be strictly avoided by pregnant women.

Longan (Euphoria longana) La myai

Action: Blood Tonic, Female Tonic, Nervine, Nutritive Tonic, Sedative
Taste: Sweet
Part used: Fruit
Internal Application: Flelated to the lychee, the longan berry is one of the most celebrated fruits of Northern Thailand and a yearly festival is held in its honor every August in the town of Lumphun. The longan is a refreshing summerfruit, and iced longan juice helps to take the edge off an overheated day. The longan is a nutritive tonic familiar to Chinese herbalism and a powerful tonic forthe brain, senses, memon/, and blood. lt is especially beneficial for women post-partum, as it is beneficial for the female reproductive system. in both sexes, it is a calmative recommended for insomnia, heart palpitations, stress, anxiety and vertigo.

Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Dok Bua

Action: Aphrodisiac, Astringent, Cardiac, Female Tonic, Nutritive Tonic, Sedative
Taste: Aromatic (flower), oily (seed)
Part used: Flower, Seed
Internal Application: The lotus is revered across Asia wherever Hinduism and Buddhism predominate, and it is the most sacred plant in Thailand. Lotus flowers can be found growing on the grounds of most temples, universities, and government buildings. They are commonly given to monks by the devout as symbols of reverence and are positioned prominently upon Buddhist altars across Thailand. The lotus is symbolic of the human soul’s transmigration through life. Growing in swamps, the plant begins its life-cycle under muddy water, slowly breaking through to the surface, where it blooms. Similarly, in the Buddhist and Hindu belief system, the soul is reincarnated again and again in the “mud” of the world, until it breaks through to the surface and blooms in Enlightenment. The seed of the lotus is used in Thai medicine as a general nutritive tonic, especially during pregnancy. As part of the daily diet, the seeds are beneficial for skin, bones, muscles, and joints. Lotus seed is a cardiac tonic recommended in cases of heart disease to strengthen the heart muscle. Inhaled, the vapor of the flower calms the nervous system, promoting a clear and peaceful mind. Lotus stamen may also be taken internally as a remedy for dizziness and nervousness.

Mandarin Orange (Citrus reticulata) Som Khiew Whan

Action: Adjuvant, Antiemetic, Antioxidant, Carminative, Digestive, Expectorant, Nutritive Tonic, Stimulant, Stomachic Taste: Bitter
Part used: Rind
Internal Application: Mandarin orange is an Asian variety, similar to a tangerine, that is green when ripe. Orange rind is a rich source of the antioxidant, vitamin C. It is a tonic for energy and immunity, stimulates the senses, and is useful as an adjuvant herb in treatments for colds, nausea, flu and digestive problems. Due to its vitamin content, mandarin rind is also a powerful antioxidant beneficial for the eyes, brain, and immune system.

Mango (Mangifera indica) Mamuang

Action: Antioxidant, Blood Tonic
Taste: Sour
Part used: Fruit
Internal Application: There are many varieties of mango in Thailand, some of which are eaten ripe and others of which are considered to be best while still green. The mango fruit is high in vitamin C and is therefore an antioxidant and immunity booster. lt is recommended as a blood purifier and as a part of the daily diet for the elderly, anyone with chronic disease and those who live in polluted areas.

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) Mangkhut

Action: Antirheumatic, Antiseptic, Astringent
Taste: Astringent
Part used: Rind
Internal Application: One of the most popular fruits in Thailand, the mangosteen is a sweet white fleshy fruit encased in a thick purple rind. The rind is mentioned in the Wat Po texts as an astringent used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and hemorrhoids. Powder from the rind is also traditionally used to counter food poisoning, food allergies, and arthritis.
Topical Application: A poultice of mangosteen rind may be used topically as an astringent to cleanse cuts, wounds and other skin infections.

Mawaeng (Solanum trilobatum)

Action: Antitussive, Bitter Tonic, Diuretic, Expectorant
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Fruit
Internal Application: The unripe mawaeng fruit is used as a bitter tonic and as an expectorant for treatment of cold, cough and congestion. The ripe fruit has the same properties and is additionally eaten as a treatment for diabetes and hypoglycemia.

Milk Nom Poung

Action: Adjuvant, Demulcent, Emollient, Nutritive Tonic
Taste: Sweet Part used: Raw, unhomogenized cow’s milk
Internal Application: Milk is mainly used internally as an adjuvant to enhance demulcent herbal remedies. lt is a nutritive tonic and may be used in preparations to counter low energy, low immunity, and emaciation, and to build strength in children, the elderly, and those convalescing from disease or injury. Milk should not be used for illnesses with excessive congestion, as it thickens mucous.
Topical Application: Powdered milk is mainly used in the Thai tradition as a topical treatment for dry or scaly skin.

Monkey Jack (Artocarpus lakoocha) Mahaat

Action: Anthelmintic
Taste: Toxic Part used: Wood
Internal Application: Monkey jack is a potent anthelmintic used traditionally for the elimination of tapeworms and other intestinal parasites.

Mulberry (Moms indica) Bai Mon

Action: Anthelmintic, Antipyretic, Antitumor, Antitussive, Aphrodisiac, Carminative, Laxative, Purgative, Sedative
Part used: Bark of Root, Leaf
Internal Application: As a laxative, mulberry root bark is used to counter constipation, indigestion, and flatulence. lt is prescribed for fever, cough, and in cases of anxiety, stress, or nervousness. it is also said to be an aphrodisiac. Mulberry root bark has been shown to have tumor-shrinking properties and is therefore being researched for treatment of cancer. A green tea and mulberry combination is a popular Thai tea with immuneboosting antioxidants and anticancerous alkaloids. in larger doses, it is used as a purgative to expel tapeworms and other intestinal parasites. A decoction of the leaves is diluted and used as eye drops for conjunctivitis, sties, and other eye infections.
Caution: The unripe fruit of the mulberry is poisonous.

Musk (Mimulus moschatus) Kee Cha Mod

Action: Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antitumor, Aphrodisiac, Emmenagogue, Stimulant, Tonic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Musk is obtained from the glands of the male musk deer Moschus moschiferusl.
Internal Application: Musk is a stimulating tonic, particularly for the brain, central nervous system, and circulatory system. it is recognized as an aphrodisiac by many cultures around the world, and is therefore often used in perfumery. in the Thai tradition, musk is commonly taken medicinally as a stimulant for the nen/ous system and in larger doses for cases of fainting, unconsciousness, or coma. It is also used both internally and topically to combat tumors, to reduce swelling, and as a general analgesic.
Caution: Musk is an abortifacient and may cause miscarriage. it should be strictly avoided by pregnant women.

Neem (Azadirachta indica) Sadao

Action: Alterative, Anthelmintic, Antiemetic, Antihistamine, Antiparasitic, Antipyretic, Antiseptic, Astringent, Bitter Tonic, Blood Tonic, Expectorant, Stimulant, Stomachic, Vulneran
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Whole plant
Internal Application: The neem tree is a natural pharmacy in and of itself, and is prized by the Thai system, the Ayurvedic tradition of India, and indeed throughout Asia, as an essential source of herbal medicine. The bark of the stem is used as an astringent to treat dysentery and diarrhea. The bark of the root is used as an expectorant, a bitter tonic and an antimalarial. The heartwood effectively treats nausea, vomiting, and parasites, and is used to calm chronic anxiety and stress and delirium due to high fever. The fruit is an astringent anthelmintic which treats intestinal parasites, hemorrhoids, and malaria. The young shoots, leaves, and flowers are used as a bitter tonic for detoxification of blood, for treatment of vomiting, stomach pain, indigestion, fever, and malaria. Decoction of these parts is also a general internal antibacterial, antiviral, and diuretic used frequently treat dysentery, diarrhea, and parasites. Chewing the stems is said to stimulate the appetite and the Wat Po texts mention the seed as a mild stimulant and as a treatment.

Night Jasmine (Nyctarithes arbortristis) Kanika

Action: Antipyretic, Appetizer, Cholagogue, Laxative, Tonic
Taste: Aromatic
Part used: Whole plant
Internal Application: While not properly a species of jasmine, the night jasmine has many of the same medicinal properties as Jasminum officinale. The flower is used to treat fever and vertigo, and was used traditionally to make a saffron-colored dye used for monks’ robes. Decoction of the stem relieves headache. The leaf is a cholagogue, stimulating appetite and enhancing digestion by increasing the production of bile. The root is a laxative and a tonic which balances the four elements

Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Yo Baan

Action: Alterative, Analgesic, Antiemetic, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antitumor, Digestive, Emmenagogue, Nutritive Tonic, Stomachic
Part used: Fruit
Internal Application: In Thailand, the unripe noni fruit is traditionally used as a digestive and to counter nausea and vomiting. This fruit is widely known throughout the Pacific islands, however, as a universal panacea, and its popularity is growing worldwide. Noni has been used successfully for treating colds, tuberculosis, flu, asthma, indigestion, gastritis, chronic constipation, and internal parasites, as well as for bladder, kidney, and urinary tract infections and disease. It is a rich source of vitamin C and other antioxidants, and is used as a nutritive tonic to boost the immune system. The noni fruit is also a tonic for the respiratory system, controls high blood pressure, treats diabetes and hypoglycemia and has been shown to retard the growth of tumors and cancerous cells. ln modern Thailand, it is used as a daily tonic in the treatment of cancer, HlV, hepatitis and other diseases.

Nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus) Ya Haew Moo

Action: Alterative, Analgesic, Anthelmintic, Antipyretic, Antispasmodic, Astringent, Carminative, Cardiac, Diaphoretic, Digestive, Diuretic, Emmenagogue, Stimulant, Stomachic, Tonic
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Rhizome
Internal Application: Taken daily, nutgrass is a tonic for the liver and heart, a digestion stimulant, and an aid against hypertension. It is extremely useful in cases of blocked or infrequent menstruation, menstrual cramps, and PMS. in Thai tradition, it is used to treat fevers, especially those that occur during menstruation. It is also commonly used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, stomach or intestinal cramps, irritable bowel, gastritis indigestion, flatulence, colds, flu, and congestion.

Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) Chan Thet

Action: Antipyretic, Antispasmodic, Aphrodisiac, Appetizer, Astringent, Blood Tonic, Carminative, Digestive, Male Tonic, Nervine, Sedative
Taste: Hot
Part used: Wood, Seed
Internal Application: The seed kernel is properly called nutmeg, while the membrane that covers the kernel is called mace. Nutmeg is used in small quantities in Thai cuisine as an appetizer, digestive, and carminative. It is added as a spice to food to enhance assimilation of food, lessen flatulence, and correct sluggish digestion. Nutmeg is also considered to be a tonic for the blood and a sedative with muscle relaxant qualities. According to Ayun/edic tradition, nutmeg calms the mind and cures insomnia, incontinence of urine, and premature ejaculation. In larger doses, it is strongly hallucinogenic and has been used in some areas of the world as a psychoactive drug. Mace is not used medicinally by the Thais, but it is a popular condiment. Decoction of the wood is a lung and liver tonic.

Nyang Plaamoo (Acanthus ilicifolius)

Action: Antipyretic, Diuretic
Part used: Root, Trunk, Leaf
Internal Application: This plant is a diuretic used to help expel kidney and bladder stones and is also an antipyretic for fevers, especially those associated with skin symptoms suchas measles, chicken-pox, and scarlet fever
Topical Application: This plant is also used topically for skin eruptions, boils, leprosy and fevers.

Oroxylum (Oroxylum indicurn) Phae Kaa

Action: Anti?inflammatory, Antipyretic, Antirheumatic, Antitussive, Astringent, Expectorant, Female Tonic, Stomachic, Vulnerary
Taste: Astringent
Part used: Whole plant
Internal Application: Oroxylum bark tea is used traditionally as a uterine tonic after childbirth. It is also used in treatment of diarrhea, arthritis, and measles. Oroxylum seeds and bark are prescribed in cases of sore throat and cough, especially when accompanied by chills, fever, or other cold symptoms. The root, stem and bark is an antidiarrheal and a tonic for the four elements. This herb is extremely popular among the Hill-Tribes, who use it for treatment of indigestion, stomachache, inflammation, kidney and bladder disease, spleen disease, malaria and cancer.
Topical Application: The Hill Tribes apply a poultice of oroxylum to broken bones, burns, rashes, dermatitis, cuts, wounds, and muscle pain.
Caution: Oroxylum acts as an abortifacient and should be strictly avoided by pregnant mothers.

Otaheite Gooseberry (Phyllanthus acidus)

Action: Antipyretic
Taste: Sour
Part used: Fruit
Internal Application: Otaheite gooseberries are traditionally eaten for cases of fever, chronic thirst, and measles.

Oyster Huynarom

Action: Carminative, Digestive, Diuretic
Taste: Salty
Part used: Shell
Internal Application: Ground oyster shells are a traditional treatment of kidney stones, flatulence, and indigestion. Due to the high calcium content of the shell, it is also recommended as a dietary supplement for those with bone disease or fractures. Preparation: Oyster shell is readily available in capsule form in most vitamin and herbal supplement stores.

Pandanus (Pandanus tectorius) Toey Hawm

Action: Antipyretic, Cardiac, Carminative, Digestive, Diuretic, Expectorant
Taste: Sweet
Part used: Hoot, Flower
Internal Application: The male pandanus flower is a tonic for the heart. The root is a diuretic used to help expel kidney or bladder stones. lt also reduces fever, mucous congestion and relieves indigestion and flatulence.

Papaya (Carica papaya) Malakor

Action: Anthelmintic, Antioxidant, Antirheumatic, Antitumor, Cardiac, Digestive, Diuretic, Emmenagogue, Laxative, Nutritive Tonic, Stomachic, Vulneraiy
Taste: Sweet and bitter
Part used: Seed, Fruit, Leaf, Root
Internal Application: Papaya is a digestion stimulant and aids in assimilating food due to the large amount of the enzyme papain present in the fruit. The enzyme is so effective that. in many parts of the tropics, tough meat is soaked overnight in a marinade that contains papaya pulp orjuice as a tenderizer. Papaya also contains large quantities of vitamins A and C, well known antioxidants. The fruit of the papaya is eaten both ripe and unripe. While the unripe fruit is a digestive, the ripe fruit and the seeds are mild laxatives taken medicinally to treat constipation, indigestion, flatulence, and cramping of the intestines. Papaya seed is also used to purge dysentery and other parasites of the gastrointestinal tract. The root is a diuretic used to treat venereal diseases such as gonorrhea. Papaya is recommended as part of the daily diet for cases of arthritis, allergies, asthma, hypertension, hysteria, influenza. toothaches, and cancerous tumors. Either the seeds or the fruit may be taken as a general tonic for low immunity, low energy, chronic fatigue, and wasting diseases.
Topical Application: The leaf of the papaya is used topically on wounds, skin ulcers and other sores, as it cleanses and speeds healing.

Paracress (Spilanthex acmella) Phak Khraat Hua Wan

Action: Analgesic, Antiemetic, Antipyretic, Antirheumatic, Antiseptic, Appetizer, Carminative, Digestive, Stomachic
Part used: Whole plant
Internal Application: Paracress tea is a digestion stimulant. lt is useful in cases of flatulence, nausea, and vomiting, and is also prescribed for fever, arthritis, and gout. Mixed with vinegar, it makes a mild antiseptic for mouth sores and sore throat. The stems are also chewed for toothache and are sometimes given to children with speech disorders such as stuttering. Paracress is said to cure these problems, as well as paralysis of the tongue and general weakness of the mouth.

Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Saranae

Action: Analgesic, Antiemetic, Antispasmodic, Antitussive, Aphrodisiac, Appetizer, Carminative, Choiagogue, Diaphoretic, Digestive, Expectorant, Nen/ine, Refrigerant, Sedative, Stomachic, Tonic
Taste: Hot and Aromatic
Part used: Leaf
Internal Application: Peppermint tea is a general digestion stimulant and is the preferred treatment for stomach spasms or pains, nausea, abdominal cramps, indigestion, irritable bowel syndrome, and gastritis. Tea or inhalation is prescribed to treat cough. Peppermint has a calming effect on the nervous system, and the vapor is used with success in the treatment of nervousness, insomnia and stress-related or migraine headaches.

Pineapple (Ananas cososus) Sapparot

Action: Anti-inflammatory, Antitussive, Blood Tonic, Diuretic, Expectorant, Female Tonic, Nutritive Tonic, Stomachic
Taste: Sour
Part used: Fruit, Rhizome
Internal Application: The rhizome of the pineapple plant is a diuretic recommended for those suffering from kidney diseases, kidney stones, bladder infections, and urinary tract infections. Pineapple fruit juice is recommended for inflammatory internal diseases, diseases of the liver, and cough or cold with congestion. It is a nutritive tonic for convalescence and is said to detoxify the entire system. It is also recommended for diseases of the uterus and for postpartum tonification and strengthening of the female reproductive organs. The fruit juice is used in treatment of depression, and due to the vitamin content, has an especially beneficial effect on the brain and nervous system. The Hill-Tribes take pineapple juice to treat stomachache and use it topically on warts, rashes, and dermatitis.

Plantain (Plantago major) Phak Kaat Nam

Action: Alterative, Antitussive, Astringent, Demulcent, Digestive, Diuretic, Expectorant, Hemostatic, Stomachic, Vulnerary
Taste: Astringent
Part used: Whole plant
Internal Application: The fresh juice from the whole plant is drunk as a diuretic to treat bladder or urinary tracts infections and kidney stones. It is an expectorant to help clear up cough, laryngitis, sore throat, and any other respiratory problems. It soothes digestive problems, peptic ulcers, and gastritis. As an astringent, it is used to counter mucous or blood in the stool, sputum, or vaginal discharge.
Topical Application: Apply fresh juice to dermatitis, sores, wounds, insect bites and allergic skin eruptions. Hill?Tribes use a poultice of plantain over broken bones and chew the plant for toothache.

Plumbago (Plumbago zelyanica) Phloeng Khaao

Action: Blood Tonic, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Female Tonic, Stomachic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Root, Bark
Internal Application: As it stimulates the Fire element and warms the body, the root of eithertype of plumbago is used as a carminative to stimulate digestion and as a diaphoretic. The root and/or bark of the plumbago may be used to treat cases of blocked or infrequent menstruation and to increase female fertility, although it is also an abortifacient, and should never be taken during pregnancy. Plumbago is also used to detoxify the blood and is prized by some Hill-Tribes as a general longevity tonic. The root of the rose leadwon is also used to treat hemorrhoids. The aerial parts of either plant are used in treatment of kidney disease, kidney cramps and accompanying back pain.
Caution: Plumbago may cause miscarriage and should be strictly avoided by pregnant women.

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Tu btim

Action: Alterative, Anthelmintic, Antipyretic, Astringent, Galactogogue, Refrigerant, Stomachic, Tonic
Taste: Astringent (fruit), Toxic (root bark)
Part used: Fruit, Root
Internal Application: Fresh pomegranate juice is an astringent and a refrigerant, and is used to lower the body’s temperature in cases of fever. The rind of the pomegranate is a strong astringent used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, blood or mucous in the stool, and food poisoning. The bark of the root is effective in purging tapeworm and other intestinal parasites. The Wat Po texts mention pomegranate flowers as a tonic to improve the quality of breast milk.
Topical Application: Fresh pomegranate juice may be used topically as an astringent and anti fungal, or as a gargle for sore throat or mouth sores.
Caution: Large doses of root bark may be toxic.

Pomelo (Citrus maximus) Som Oh

Action: Antipruritic
Taste: Sour
Part used: Leaf
Topical Application: Pomelo fruit looks like a huge green grapefruit. The rind is thicker and the pulp is much larger, but the flavor is similar to the pink grapefruits we know in the West. Pomelo fruit is eaten by itself or mixed with roasted garlic, onions, chili, and peanuts to make a tangy and delectable salad. Decoction of the leaf of the pomelo is used for dandruff and dry, brittle hair. lt may also be added to the sauna for the same purposes.

Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Fak Thong

Action: Anthelmintic, Aphrodisiac, Diuretic, Tonic
Taste: Bland
Part Used: Seed
Internal Application: Stewed with coconut milk and palm sugar, sauteed with red curry paste, or stir-fried with Chinese vegetables, pumpkin is a common ingredient in Thai curries and sweets. The seeds are used traditionally in Eastern and Western herbalism to purge tapeworm and other intestinal parasites from the gastrointestinal tract. The Thai system holds pumpkin root to be an aphrodisiac and tonic.

Purple Allmnanda (Thunbergia laurifolia) Rang Juad

Action: Antiallergic, Antipyretic, Blood Tonic, Carminative, Digestive, Diuretic
Taste: Bland
Part used: Leaf
Internal Application: Purple allamanda is most commonly used in the Thai tradition as a detoxifying agent. lt purifies the blood and is therefore used as an antidote to all kinds of poisonous food or chemicals. Some Hill-Tribes prescribe it for poisonous snake or insect bites. Its detoxifying properties make it the preferred treatment of hangovers, and it is prescribed daily for countering the cirrhosis associated with alcoholism. Purple allamanda is also useful in treating indigestion, flatulence, diarrhea, mucous or blood in the stool, and intestinal parasites. It is also prescribed as a remedy for fever, allergies, and asthma, and is recommended for diabetes and hypoglycemia, as it reputedly lowers blood sugar. This plant is mentioned in the Wat Po texts as a remedy for vomiting in infants, for blocked or irregular menstruation, gonorrhea, sores on the tongue and mouth, as a diuretic and as a poultice for burns.

Queen’s Flower (Lagerstroemia speciosa) lnthanin Nam

Action: Diuretic
Part used: Leaf
Internal Application: Queen’s flower tea reduces blood sugar levels and is therefore good for diabetics. As a diuretic, it is also useful for irregular or painful urination, kidney and bladder stones and venereal diseases

Railroad Vine (Ipomoea pes-carprae) Phakbung Talae

Action: Antipruritic
Part used: Leaf
Topical Application: Railroad vine is applied topically to soothe insect bites, inflammation, allergic reactions, hives, and rashes. It also relieves the painful sting of jellyfish.

Rangoon Creeper (Quisqualis densiflora) Lep Mue Naang

Action: Anthelmintic
Taste: Toxic
Part used: Seed
Internal Application: Rangoon creeper is a purgative traditionally used to expel tapeworms and other intestinal parasites. It is recommended for children, as it is not too strong.

Reishi Mushroom (Ganodarma lucidum) Hed Lhin-Jeu

Action: Tonic
Part used: Mushroom
Internal Application: Reishi mushroom can be found in any herb market in Thailand. lt has long been prized in Thai medicine, and is one of the most revered herbs in China. Reishi is traditionally used to tonify qi (energy). and to enhance the immune system. lt is commonly used in rebuilding therapies to strengthen and revitalize after illness and during changes in the seasons. lt has been shown to possess antiviral and antibacterial action, and to support cardiovascular and liver function. In China, it is also used to combat altitude sickness and to enhance athletic performance. This herb is also used to treat cancer, diabetes, hypoglycemia, hypertension, and chronic heart disease.

Safflower (Cartharnus tinctorius) Dawg Kum Foy

Action: Alterative, Antirheumatic, Cardiac, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Emmenagogue, Laxative, l\/lale Tonic, Tonic, Stimulant
Taste: Hot
Part used: Flower, Seed
Internal Application: Dried safflower is a tonic, especially for the heart and the circulatory and nervous systems. Because of its beneficial effect on the circulation, it is used to treat cases of male sexual dysfunction and to encourage regularity in cases of blocked, irregular, or painful menstruation. The flower is used as a calmative in cases of stress, anxiety and panic attacks. It is also an effective therapy for colds, arthritis, and constipation. The seed is a purgative and expectorant and may also be used to encourage menstruation and to lower cholesterol.
Topical Application: Safflower is used topically as an antibacterial, as well as to ease inflammation, arthritis and sciatica.

Salet Phangphon (Clinacanthus nutans)

Action: Antipruritic
Part used: Leaf
Topical Application: A tincture of salet phangphon (pronounced “salet pang?pon”) is used topically to soothe skin ulcers, herpes, allergic rash, hives, shingles, burns, insect and snake bites.

Sandalwood Tree (Adenanthera pavonina) Maklam Tah Chang

Action: Alterative, Anti-inflammatory, Antipruritic, Antipyretic, Antiseptic, Bitter Tonic, Blood Tonic, Hemostatic, Refrigerant, Sedative
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Wood, Essential oil
Internal Application: Sandalwood is taken internally to treat fever and to detoxify the blood. It is used by Hill Tribes to revive unconscious patients and as a tonic.
Topical Application: Sandalwood paste is used by many in South Asia as a topical refrigerant. ln many places, a small smudge is applied over the third eye or on the forehead to cool the entire body and to lessen sweating. These smudges have taken on religious symbolism in India and are used to differentiate different Hindu sects. Sandalwood paste is not used in this way in Thailand, although sandalwood oil is a frequent ingredient in soaps, shampoos, and fragrances, all of which have the same cooling effect on the body. Sandalwood may also be applied to dermatitis, herpes and infection, and inflammation of the skin.

Satinwood (Murraya paniculata) Kaew

Action: Anti-inflammatory
Part used: Leaf
Topical Application: A tincture of satinwood is used topically as an anti-inflammatory. Lt soothes sprains, joint pain, bone pain, contusions, toothaches, and swollen, painful insect and snake bites.

Sea Salt Glaur Talay

Action: Antiseptic, Laxative, Purgative
Taste: Salty
Internal Application: Sea salt is used in Thai medicine as a gargle for mouth sores and infections. A sea salt solution may be drunk twice daily as a laxative, to purge the digestive system of excessive mucous, and to encourage drainage of lymph. The same solution may be used as a disinfectant eyewash, gargle, nasal wash, or enema, and may be swallowed and vomited up to remove mucous or foreign matter from the stomach.

Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica) Rangap

Action: Analgesic, Diuretic
Part used: Whole plant
Internal Application: The whole plant is decocted and taken internally by many Hill Tribes as a diuretic for kidney dysfunction and/or stones. Sensitive plant also is used in the Thai tradition to treat anemia, jaundice, and emaciation. The root is a remedy for dysentery. A tincture in alcohol is used to lower high blood sugar levels.
Topical Application: Sensitive plant is used topically for aching muscles.

Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum) Nga

Action: Antirheumatic, Demulcent, Emmenagogue, Emollient, Laxative, Nutritive Tonic
Taste: Oily
Part used: Seed, Oil
Internal Application: ln Thai medicine, sesame seeds are recommended dietary supplements for sufferers of ioint problems, tooth decay, and bone weakness. Sesame promotes strength and increases body warmth and is therefore a nutritive tonic as part of the daily diet. As a demulcent, sesame seed is also taken in cases of cough, constipation, hemorrhoids, and painful or blocked menstruation,

Shorea (Shorea roxburghii) Phayom

Action: Astringent
Part used: Flower
Internal Application: Shorea flowers are used to treat diarrhea, bloody stool, or other excessive discharge.

Soap Nut (Sapindus rarak) Makham Dee Khwai

Action: Antiparasitic, Antipruritic, Antipyretic, Antiseptic, Bitter Tonic
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Seed, Fruit
Internal Application: The seed of the soap nut tree is traditionally used for treatment of fever and food poisoning, and is considered to be a bitter tonic. The Wat Po texts mention the pulp of the soap nut fruit as an antibacterial used in making ear drops.
Topical Application: The soap nut fruit was at one time used in South Asia as a natural soap and still is an ingredient in natural herbal soaps and shampoos. In Thailand, the soap nut is used medicinally to counter itching of the skin such as in the case of allergic reactions, hives, rashes and dandruff. lt is also used as a skin tonic and as a remedy for ringworm.

Star Anise (Illicium verum) Poy kak

Action: Analgesic, Antispasmodic, Antitussive, Carminative, Digestive, Emmenagogue, Expectorant, Sedative, Stomachic
Taste: Hot and Sweet
Part used: Seed pod
Internal Application: Anise is mainly a digestive used to counter flatulence, indigestion, irritable bowel, gastritis, and other stomach or intestinal cramping. It is gentle enough to use safely with children and infants. Star anise is a useful cold remedy for cases of dry cough, congestion, flu, and sore throat. As an expectorant, it is especially useful in cases of bronchitis, asthma, and other respiratory infections. It is an excellent remedy for insomnia and promotes regular menstruation.

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) Yaa Wann

Action: Adjuvant
Taste: Sweet
Part used: Leaf
Internal Application: This leaf is a native of Brazil and Paraguay, but is currently used widely in South East Asia and China as a sugar substitute for diabetics, hypoglycemics, and weight-conscious individuals. By weight, it is up to 300 times sweeter than sugar but has virtually no calories. Diabetics and hypoglycemics should always use stevia as a sweetener in herbal teas rather than honey or sugar.

Sting-Ray Pla Kraben

Action: Female Tonic, Nutritive Tonic
Taste: Salty
Part used: Tail
Internal Application: The meat of the sting-ray’s tail is prized for its tonic properties in a way similar to the horseshoe crab. It is typically eaten by children to prevent a host of childhood illnesses and by new mothers for tonification of uterus and other female reproductive organs after pregnancy.

Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) Noinae

Action: Antiparasitic
Taste: Toxic (leaf, seed), Sweet (fruit)
Part used: Leaf, Seed
Internal Application: A popular fruit in northern Thailand, the sugar apple is used medicinally for treatment of lice.

Sugar Cane (Saccharum officinarurn) Oi Daeng

Action: Adjuvant, Antitussive, Demulcent
Taste: Sweet
Part used: Various types of sugarand their uses follow
Internal Application: Sugar cane is commonly available from vendors in the streets of South Asia. Whereas in India, traveling cane-presses allow a thirsty visitor to enjoy a fresh-squeezed glass of juice, in Thailand, iced sugar cane is sold in bite-sized chunks. The cane is chewed, and the woody pulp is spat out when the juice has been extracted. Any way it is eaten, there are few things more pleasurable on a hot sticky day than fresh sugar cane. Traditionally, sugar is typically added as an adjuvant to herbal teas to soothe the throat and to make the taste more palatable. Different types of sugar will be added depending on the symptoms. Fresh sugar cane juice is added to treat fever, sore throat, cough, congestion, bladder infections, urinary tract infections, low energy, low immunity, chronic disease, chronic fatigue, and emaciation. Raw, unrefined sugar is added to herbal teas that treat fever and lymph problems. Rock sugar is added to treatments for fevers, colds, and sore throat. Juice of the black sugar cane lSaccharum sinense) is a diuretic used in remedies for kidney disorders and venereal diseases.

Sugar Palm (Arenga saccharifera) Dtao

Action: Adjuvant, Demulcent
Taste: Sweet
Part used: Sap
Internal Application: Palm sugar is added as an adjuvant to herbal teas that treat colds, sore throat and congestion.

Tako Naa (Diospyros rhodocalyx)

Action: Antiseptic, Tonic
Part used: Stem
Internal Application: A relative of the ebony tree, tako naa is used to balance the four elements, as a longevity tonic, a mouthwash for toothache and gum disease and a treatment for vaginal discharge.

Tamarind (Tamaridus fndica) Ma Khaam

Action: Anthelmintic, Antipyretic, Antiseptic, Astringent, Blood Tonic, Carminative, Digestive, Expectorant, Female Tonic, Laxative, Nutritive Tonic, Purgative, Refrigerant, Stimulant, Vulnerary
Taste: Sour (fruit, leaf, bark), Oily (seed)
Part used: Whole plant
Internal Application: Tamarind is a common ingredient in Thai cuisine. The pulp of the fruit is cooked and added to soups and curries for flavor. The flowers, fruit, and young leaves are eaten in soups and curries. Unripe fruit is also candied and sold by street vendors coated with sugar, salt, and red chili flakes. The fresh juice of the tamarind is the Thai equivalent of our prune juice and is a favorite remedy for constipation and fever. It is considered to be a blood purifier and is recommended for pregnancy and postpartum. Tea made from the young leaves and pods of the tamarind is a laxative and is used to treat colds and fevers. The flowers are held to lower blood pressure, and the bark is an astringent remedy for diarrhea and fever. The seeds of the tamarind are used as a purgative to expel tapeworms and other intestinal parasites and are also recommended as a tonic for health, strength and vigor.
Topical Application: The leaves of the tamarind are also frequently used topically to treat skin ulcers and sores. The juice and decoction of the bark are both useful astringents for general antiseptic treatment of the skin and are frequently applied directly to oily or infected skin before sauna or steam bath.

Thai Caper (Capparis micracantha) Ching-chee

Action: Antipyretic, Bronchodilator, Carminative, Stomachic
Taste: Bitter
Part used: Root, Stem, Leaf
Internal Application: The root of the Thai caper is used as a carminative, a stomachic, and a bronchodilator. The root and leaf are used to treat asthma, chest pain, skin disease and chicken pox, measles, and other fevers with symptoms on the skin. The Wat Po texts mention the Thai caper as a remedy for smallpox, delirium, poisoning, and eye diseases.
Topical Application: Decoction of the root may be used topically as an antibacterial. The leaf relieves muscle cramps.

Thao (Tiliacora triandra)

Action: Analgesic, Antipyretic
Part used: Root, Leaf
Internal Application: This herb is used in the Thai tradition to treat fevers. It is used by Hill Tribes for sprains, bruises, sore muscles, and post-delivery to lessen pain and promote healing.

Thong Phan Chang (Rhinacanthus nasutus)

Action: Anthelmintic, Antiparasitic, Antipyretic, Antiseptic, Blood Tonic, Diuretic, Laxative
Taste: Toxic
Part used: Root, Leaf, Stem
Internal Application: Thong phan chang is used to treat fevers, sore throat, colds, and lung diseases such as bronchitis and tuberculosis. lt lowers blood pressure and is therefore effective treatment for hypertension. Tea made from this herb has a laxative effect, is held to help back pain, and is useful to encourage passing of gallstones, The Wat Po texts recommend the leaf as a diuretic, laxative, and anthelmintic, and as a detoxifying remedy for fever, blood poisoning, skin disease, and cancer. lt is said that thong phan chang must be collected between sunset and sunrise because sunlight destroys the potency of the plant.
Topical Application: A tincture made of thong pan chang leaves is used topically as a treatment for bacterial and fungal skin infections, rashes, ringworm and other skin parasites.

Ti Plant (Cordiline fruticosa) Maak phu maak mia

Action: Antirheumatic, Astringent
Taste: Bland
Part used: Leaf, Bud, Young Shoot
Internal Application: The Ti plant is an astringent with a wide range of applications. It is a hemostatic, used traditionally to stop bleeding in cases of bloody vomit, stool, or urine. It is also employed to stop the coughing of blood associated with tuberculosis, to halt excessive menstruation, and to curtail internal bleeding of the organs, bruises, contusions and hematoma. The ti plant may also be used for treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, anhritis, fever, and measles. As a gargle, it is effective against tooth and gum disease, bleeding gums, and halitosis.

Toothbrush Tree (Streblus asper) Khoi

Action: Analgesic, Antiparasitic, Antipyretic, Antiseptic, Antitumor, Appetizer, Astringent, Carminative, Digestive, Laxative, Tonic
Taste: Toxic
Part used: Leaf, Stem, Wood
Internal Application: The toothbrush tree seed is a longevity tonic for the four elements. It is also a carminative and appetizer, used to stimulate digestion and combat flatulence. The bark of the stem has antidiarrheal and antipyretic properties, and is often used to combat dysentery and other cases of diarrhea accompanied by fever. Infusion of the toothbrush tree leaf is a laxative and is also taken to treat all varieties of bone disease. The heartwood is traditionally dried, cut into small pieces, wrapped in dried banana leaves, and smoked for treatment of inflamed nasal passages.
Topical Application: The toothbrush tree, as its name would suggest, is a popular traditional remedy fortooth and gum disease. It is also applied topicallyto kill ringworm and other skin parasites. Another common usage is to treat hemorrhoids
Note: This plant has recently been shown to have antitumor properties. Although it is not traditionally used to treat this disease, toothbrush tree is currently being studied as a treatment of cancer.

Turmeric (Curcuma Ionga) Khamin

Action: Alterative, Analgesic, Anthelmintic, Antiinflammatory, Antipruritic, Antirheumatic, Antiseptic, Antitussive, Astringent, Blood Tonic, Carminative, Cholagogue, Digestive, Emmenagogue, Stomachic, Tonic, Vulnerary
Taste: Hot
Part used: Rhizome, Leaf
Internal Application: Turmeric is related to ginger and galangal, and shares some of the properties of these plants. Turmeric is used as a digestive stimulant and is often used as an adjuvant with preparations for gastrointestinal complaints, as it aids in treatment of flatulence, peptic ulcers, indigestion, irritable bowel, and gastritis. lt is said to lower blood sugar and is therefore used for diabetes and hypoglycemia. Turmeric is also a remedy for cough, arthritis, chronic back pain, and painful or blocked menstruation. Turmeric leaves may be used as an antidote for food poisoning and for treatment of hepatitis, as it has a detoxifying effect on the blood, digestive tract, and liver, and regulates the body’s secretion of hormones.
Topical Application: The turmeric rhizome relives itching and swelling, and has a slight antiseptic effect. It therefore can be used topically on insect bites, rashes, allergic reactions, hives, and superficial wounds. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory for bruises and sprains.

Turkish Rhubarb (Rheum palmatum)

Action: Alterative, Anthelmintic, Antiemetic, Antipyretic, Antiseptic, Astringent, Cardiac, Carminative, Cholagogue, Emmenagogue, Laxative, Nervine, Purgative, Stimulant, Stomachic
Taste: Astringent
Part used: Root, Stem
Internal Application: Turkish rhubarb is well known in Eastern and Western herbalism. In large doses, it is an effective laxative, used traditionally in Thailand for treatment of constipation and flatulence and for detoxification of the colon. In lesser doses, Turkish rhubarb is used as an astringent to treat diarrhea and as a hemostatic to stop internal bleeding, bloody vomit, blood—shot eyes, and hemorrhoids. lt is considered to be beneficial for the heart and brain, and is a stimulant for the production of bile. Rhubarb is also used in Western herbalism to treat nausea and blocked or irregular menstruation.
Caution: While the roots and stalks of most rhubarb are edible, the leaves are poisonous.

Wan Maha Kan (Gynura pseudochina)

Action: Anti-inflammatory, Antiparasific, Antipruritic, Antipyretic
Part used: Leaf, Root
Internal Application: The root of the wan maha kan is taken as a remedy for fever.
Topical Application: The fresh leaves are used topically for treatment of eczema, herpes, insect bites, scabies, lice, and skin inflammation.

Water Mimosa (Neptunia plena) Pak Kachad

Action: Antipyretic
Taste: Bland
Part used: Young Leaf and Stem
Internal Application: The water mimosa is a type of watercress commonly eaten in Thai salads and soups. It is used medicinally to treat fever, food poisoning, and severe allergic reactions. it has also been shown to have some anti-tumor properties, and is being researched for its use as an anticarcinogen.

Wild Pepper Leaf (Piper sarmcntosum) Chaa phluu

Action: Analgesic, Antispasmodic, Carminative, Digestive, Expectorant, Stomachic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Leaf
Internal Application: The wild pepper leaf is a hot herb used traditionally to stimulate digestion, to treat flatulence, indigestion, diarrhea, and dysentery, and to ease bloated stomach, abdominal discomfort, and symptoms of irritable bowel and gastritis. It is also employed as a cold remedy, especially in the case of severe lung congestion.
Topical Application: The wild pepper leaf is well known as a muscle relaxant and is frequently applied to aches, pains, and sore muscles.

Woolly Grass (Impemta cylindrica) Yaa Khaa

Action: Antipyretic, Astringent, Diuretic
Taste: Sweet
Part used: Root
Internal Application: Woolly grass is used primarily as a hemostatic, in the treatment of blood in the vomit, urine, or phlegm. It is also used for its diuretic properties in the treatment of fevers, urinary tract infections, kidney disease and stones, cystitis, blood in the urine, and vaginal discharge. The Hill-Tribes use this grass for genital, urinary, kidney, or bladder problems, kidney and gallbladder stones, sexually transmitted diseases, and topically on acne or skin infections.

Ylang-Ylang (Canaga odorata) Magrut

Action: Blood Tonic, Cardiac, Diuretic
Taste: Aromatic
Part used: Flower, Leaf, Wood
Internal Application: Ylang-ylang is a tonic for the heart and is used traditionally to treat dizziness and fainting spells. lt is a tonic for the blood, and it balances the four elements. The leaf and wood are diuretic.

Zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria) Khamin Oi

Action: Antiemetic, Antipryretic, Antiseptic, Astringent, Stomachic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Rhizome
Internal Application: Related to turmeric, zedoary is used for similar purposes. lt is effective against nausea, vomiting, intestinal cramps, irritable bowel, gastritis, and diarrhea, and is often added as an adiuvant to laxative herbs due to its soothing effect on the stomach. It is also effective against fever and is used by Hill-Tribes for dysentery.
Topical Application: Zedoary is a topical antiseptic used in the Thai tradition and by Hill Tribes on cuts, wounds, and insect bites,

Zerumbet Ginger (Zingiber Zerumbet) Ka Thue

Action: Analgesic, Antiernetic, Antirheumatic, Stornachic
Taste: Hot
Part used: Rhizome
Internal Application: Zerumbet ginger has many of the same properties as common ginger, but to a lesser degree. lt is used traditionally to treat stomach pain and cramping, as well as food poisoning or allergy, nausea, and vomiting. It can be used successfully to treat irritable bowel, gastritis, and indigestion.

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